The wide variety of flora species which can be found in Kyrgyzstan is due to the different landscapes, the various altitudes, the mountain ridges and the hollows formed between them which in many cases form isolated micro-environments.
In the low-lying valleys and in the low foothills, steppes prevail. In the middle mountainous zone are widely spread meadows, forests, and shrubs, whilst in the high mountainous zones alpine meadows and mountain tundra can be found.
There are about 4000 species of plants have been catalogued in Kyrgyzstan.
The most widely spreaded trees are spruce, juniper (archa), and nut- and fruit-tree forests. There are also spruce, maple, poplar-willow, and birch forests and Tien-Shan rowan-trees grow everywhere. There are walnut forests occupying an area of over 600,000 hectares, (the largest walnut forests in the world — featuring walnut-trees, apple-trees, pear-trees, and cherry-plum, cherry, currant, and rasp-berries canes), in the South-East of Kyrgyzstan in the Fergana and Chatkal ranges at altitudes between 1000 and 2200 meters a. s. l. Shrub thickets such as cherry, rosary, pistachio, almond, cherry-plum, sea-buckthorn, barberry, mellow are widely spread throughout the countryside. Sea-buckthorn, dog-rose, and willow grow in the flood-lands of several rivers.